Many of these definitions come from RTI Action Network
- Accommodation: Change made to instruction and/or assessment that does not change the expectations for performance or change the construct that is being measured. Accommodations provide access to buildings, curriculum, and assessments.
- Data-Based/Data-Driven Decision Making: A process of collecting, analyzing, and summarizing information to answer a question and to guide development, implementation, and evaluation of an action. Data-based decision making is continuous and regular, and most importantly linked to educational/socially important questions.
- Dual Discrepancy: A dual discrepancy occurs when a student’s performance and growth rate are both substantially below performance and growth rate of typical peers.
- Intervention: The systematic and explicit instruction provided to accelerate growth in an area of identified need. Interventions are provided by both special and general educators, and are based on training, not titles. They are designed to improve performance relative to a specific, measurable goal. Interventions are based on valid information about current performance, realistic implementation, and include ongoing student progress monitoring.
- Modifications: Alterations that change, lower, or reduce learning expectations. Modifications can increase the gap between the achievement of students with disabilities and expectations for proficiency at a particular grade level. Consistent use of modifications can negatively impact grade level achievement outcomes. Modifications in statewide assessments may invalidate the results of the assessment.
- Research-based Instruction/Intervention: A research-based instructional practice or intervention is one found to be reliable, trustworthy, and valid based on evidence to suggest that when the program is used with a particular group of children, the children can be expected to make adequate gains in achievement. Ongoing documentation and analysis of student outcomes helps to define effective practice. In the absence of evidence, the instruction/ intervention must be considered "best practice" based on available research and professional literature.
- Response to Intervention (RTI): Practice of providing high-quality instruction and interventions matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make changes in instruction or goals, and applying child response data to important educational decisions.
- Tiered Instruction: Levels of instructional intensity within a tiered model. Tier 1= General Education, Tier 2= More support, Tier 3= Most support
- Universal Screening: A quick check of all students’ current levels of performance in a content or skill area. This is administered three times per year.